For each of the following examples, state which of Newton’s Laws apply and explain your answer.

- Astronauts feel pushed back into their seats during launch.
- The force an astronaut exerts on his seat is equal in strength and opposite in direction to the force the seat exerts on the astronaut.
- The force exerted by the rocket engine overcomes the forces of gravity and air resistance, resulting in an upward acceleration of the rocket.

This answer was edited.For each of the following examples, state which of Newton’s Laws apply and explain your answer.

## a. Astronauts feel pushed back into their seats during launch.

Newton’s First Law (Law of Inertia):This law states that an object at rest will stay at rest, and an object in motion will stay in motion unless acted upon by an external force. During launch, the rocket accelerates upwards, and due to inertia, the astronauts’ bodies tend to remain at rest. This resistance to the change in motion makes the astronauts feel as if they are being pushed back into their seats.

## b. The force an astronaut exerts on his seat is equal in strength and opposite in direction to the force the seat exerts on the astronaut.

Newton’s Third Law (Action and Reaction):This law states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. The force that the astronaut exerts on the seat is matched by an equal and opposite force exerted by the seat on the astronaut. These forces are action-reaction force pairs.

## c. The force exerted by the rocket engine overcomes the forces of gravity and air resistance, resulting in an upward acceleration of the rocket.

Newton’s Second Law (Law of Acceleration):This law states that the acceleration of an object depends on the net force acting upon the object and the object’s mass (F = ma). The rocket engine produces a thrust force that is greater than the combined forces of gravity and air resistance. The net force acting on the rocket results in its upward acceleration, according to Newton’s Second Law.