Table of Contents

## Syllogism Tricks Coding Decoding Tricks and Direction Sense Tricks

### Tips and Tricks to Solve Syllogism

### Syllogism

The syllogisms are just argument sentences that require deductive reasoning to arrive at some conclusions.

#### Types of Syllogism Questions:

**1. All A are B**

This phrase means that A is contained in B but not necessarily vice versa. This means A is a subset of B, but B may not be a subset of A.

The Venn diagram for this is:

In this diagram, it is visible that circle A is inside circle B, which means that B contains the entire A, i.e. All A are B.

**2. A = B(All A are B and All B are A)**

In this case, the conclusion is similar to the first type, i.e. “All A are B”. Here not only “All A are B”, but also “All B are A”. This means A is a subset of B and B is also a subset of A.

The Venn diagram is:

Here A is contained in B and so is B contained in A. So, here A contains all B and again B also contains all A.

**3. No A are B**

It is simply understandable that B does not contain any of A and so A is not contained in B. This means that A and B are disjoint sets.

The Venn diagram for this case is:

Here no part of A is present inside of B and similarly, no part of A is present in A. So neither A nor B contain any part of B or A respectively

**4. Some A are B**

This is the case when some of A is in B that is A and B are intersecting, and thus some B are A will also be true.

The Venn diagram depiction is as:

Here, the shaded portion indicates that some portion of A is contained in B while the unshaded portion is an uncertain portion and does not indicate anything whether A is contained in B or not.

**5. Some A are not B**

This means that some portion of A is not included in B for sure while the other part of A is uncertain whether it is included in B or not.

The Venn diagram is:

In this, some portion of A is surely not included in B while there is no surety whether the shaded region is included in B or not.

**PRACTICE PROBLEM**

**Statements:**

- Some pencils are dogs
- All dogs are pens
- All pens are cats

**Conclusions:**

- All dogs are cats
- Some pens are pencils
- Some pencils are cats

**SOLUTION:**

**Check Given Statement:**

From the first statement, **Some pencils are dogs** (it’s like some A are B)

Venn diagram can be made as:

Now as per the second statement, **all dogs are pens**(like all A are B)

the Venn diagram as:

Now as per the last statement which says that **all pens are cats**(like all A are B), we get

**Now Check Given Conclusion:**

For the first conclusion, it is seen that the circle dogs is engulfed inside the circle cats. Thus the conclusion “all dogs are cats” is **true**.

For the second conclusion, the circles’ pens and pencils intersect each other and hence, the conclusion “some pens are pencils” is also **true**.

For the third conclusion, the circles’ cats and pencils also intersect each other, and hence the conclusion “some pencils are cats” is also **true**.

Therefore, all the conclusion in this question is **true**.

#### Syllogism Tricks and Tips

These are certain universal rules that should be followed while solving the syllogism questions.

- Any “All” and “All” sentence will always imply an “All” conclusion.
- Any “All’ and “No” sentence will always imply a “No” conclusion.
- Any ‘All” and “Some” sentence will always imply a “No” conclusion.
- Any “Some” and “All” sentence will always imply a “Some” conclusion.
- Any “Some” and “No” sentence will always imply a “Some not’ conclusion.
- Any “Some” and “Some” sentence will always imply a “No” conclusion.

Follow the below-mentioned **syllogism tricks and tips** that may help them solve sylloge questions easily:

- Always pay attention to words like ‘some’, ‘a few’, ‘all’, ‘atleast’, etc. These words form the base to solve the syllogism questions.
- The best syllogism trick is to solve questions in the form of Venn diagrams. This will make the explanation more clear and simplified.
- Never assume anything while solving the syllogism questions. The only data that has to be followed while solving the question is the data mentioned in the question. No extra assumption must be made while solving questions.

### Coding-Decoding Tricks

**Coding** is a part of the logical reasoning section used to encrypt words, numbers in specific patterns or codes using particular rules and regulations.

**Decoding** is the process that is used to decrypt the patterns into original forms from the given forms.

#### Types of Coding-Decoding Questions

##### Letter Coding

Letter Coding is a type in which the letters are replaced with other letters.

Example:

Q. MONKEY is coded as “KMLICW”, then what should be the code for ORANGE.

SOLUTION:

So, If we analyze ALPHABETICAL CODE for MONKEY and KMLICW then we observe it is coded by decreasing 2 for each alphabet.

So, in the same way, to code “ORANGE”, the same number should be decreased.

The final solution for Orange would be 13, 16, 25, 12, 5, 3 which is MPYLEC.

##### Number Coding

In the Number Coding section of reasoning ability, the student will have to observe and guess the hidden code of two or more sets of numbers. Once the parent code is known, the student will have to use this code to generate other numbers.

**EXAMPLE**

**Q.** If “HOUSE” is coded as 35842, and LEMON is coded as 12659, then what would be the code for HELEN?

**SOLUTION:**

Now, specify the number of each letter to solve the problem. If you observe the two(HOUSE AND LEMON) words, some of the letters are repeated(O,E), so no need to write the repeated letters.

Now, code the letters.

H is coded as 3

O is coded as 5

U is coded as 8

S is coded as 4

E is coded as 2

L is coded as 1

M is coded as 6

N is coded as 9

Using these codes, “HELEN” is coded as 3,2,1,2,9.

##### Mixed Letter Coding

In this type of question, three or four complete messages are provided in the coded language, and the code for the particular word is asked. To analyze such codes, and if any two messages bearing the common word, are picked. The common code word will be that word.

**EXAMPLE:**

**Q.** In the code language,

1) ‘Ha ka bow’ means How are you

2) ‘ka te ma’ means where are they

3) ‘se re tho’ means good and bad

What does ‘are’ stand for?

**SOLUTION:**

If we observe statements 1(How are you) and 2(where are they) “are” is common and in 1st(Ha ka bow) and 2nd(ka te ma) code language “ka” is common.

So the common word in both these statements is KA. The rest of each word is different. So, “are” stands for ka.

So, according to mixed letter coding, “are” stands for “ka”.

##### Substitution Coding

In substitution coding, it assigns particular objects to code names. Then a question is asked to solve the answer in the same pattern.

**EXAMPLE:**

Q. If ‘white’ is called ‘red’, and ‘red’ is called ‘blue’, ‘blue’ is called ‘green’, ‘green’ is called ‘yellow’, ‘yellow’ is called ‘black’, and what is the colour of blood?

**SOLUTION:**

As we know, the blood is red. So if you observe the above question, it is mentioned that white is called red and red is called blue.

So blood is red by using the substitution method, the answer would be blue.

##### Mixed Number Coding

In this mixed number-coding question, three or four complete messages are given in the coded language, and the code number for a particular word is asked.

**EXAMPLE:**

Q. If ‘the monster hunter’ is coded as 324, and ‘will be the’ is coded as 476, and ‘they are in’ is coded as 158. Which digit represents the?

**SOLUTION:**

If you observe the question in two statements, the is repeated, and in both the two statements, the only repeated letter is 4.

So, as per mixed number coding, the exact code for “the” is “4”.

### Direction Sense

Four main directions – North, South, East, West

Four Cardinal Direction – North-East, North-West, South-East, South-West

#### Some basic point to remember

- At the time of sunrise, if a man stands facing the east, his shadow will be towards the west.
- At the time of sunset, the shadow of an object is always in the east.

- If a man stands facing the North, at the time of sunrise his shadow will be towards his left and at the time of sunset, it will be towards his right.

- At 12:00 noon, the rays of the sun are vertically downward hence there will be no shadow.

- The shortest distance from a particular point after traveling a distance of x meters in the horizontal direction and a distance of y meters in the vertical direction is equal to:

√(x² + y²)

- The angle between any two main (or cardinal) directions is 90° but the angle between one man and one cardinal direction is 45°.

**EXAMPLES:**

Q. Pravin walked 30 meters towards East, took a right turn and walked 20 meters, again took a right turn and walked 30 meters. How far was he from the starting point?

**SOLUTION:**

He is 20m Far from his starting point.

Q. One day, Nitish left home and cycled 10 km southwards. Turned right and cycled 5 km and turned right and cycled 10 km and turned left cycled 10 km. How many kilometres will she have to cycle to reach her home straight?

**SOLUTION:**

She have to cycle to reach her home straight = 10 km + 5 km = 15 km

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