## Software Testing Quiz 2

For a given propositional logic formula, if all possible assignments of true/false values to the atomic propositions make the formula evaluate to true, what is the formula called?

A. The formula is a tautology.

B. The formula is a satisfiable formula.

C. The formula is a contradiction.

D. The formula is invalid.

A. The formula is a tautology.

B. The formula is a satisfiable formula.

C. The formula is a contradiction.

D. The formula is invalid.

For a given propositional logic formula, if all possible assignments of true/false values to the atomic propositions make the formula evaluate to true, the formula is called a

**tautology**.
Consider the propositional logic formula φ = p ∨ q ∨ r. Which of the following true or false assignments to p, q, and r make the formula φ evaluate to false? In the options below, T represents True and F represents False.

A. p=F, q=T, r=F.

B. p=T, q=F, r=F.

C. p=F, q=T, r=T.

D. p=F, q=F, r=F.

A. p=F, q=T, r=F.

B. p=T, q=F, r=F.

C. p=F, q=T, r=T.

D. p=F, q=F, r=F.

Considering the propositional logic formula φ = p ∨ q ∨ r, the assignment that makes the formula evaluate to false is

**p=F, q=F, r=F**.
Which logic coverage criterion tests for all possible assignments of true/false values but can get infeasible due to there being a large number of assignments?

A. Clause coverage.

B. General active clause coverage.

C. Correlated active clause coverage.

D. All combinations coverage.

A. Clause coverage.

B. General active clause coverage.

C. Correlated active clause coverage.

D. All combinations coverage.

The logic coverage criterion that tests for all possible assignments of true/false values but can get infeasible due to the large number of assignments is

**all combinations coverage**.
Which of the following is a correct order of subsumption amongst logic coverage criteria? In the options below, read → as ‘subsumes’.

A. Combinatorial coverage → Correlated active clause coverage → Predicate coverage.

B. Combinatorial coverage → Correlated active clause coverage → Predicate coverage.

A. Combinatorial coverage → Correlated active clause coverage → Predicate coverage.

B. Combinatorial coverage → Correlated active clause coverage → Predicate coverage.

The correct order of subsumption amongst logic coverage criteria is

**Combinatorial coverage → Correlated active clause coverage → Predicate coverage**.
Consider a predicate p and a clause a in p. When evaluating p

A. p

B. p

_{a}, the conditions under which clause a determines p, if we get a value False, what does this indicate?A. p

_{a}evaluating to False indicates that it is not possible for clause a to determine p.B. p

_{a}evaluating to False indicates that clause a always determines p, irrespective of the truth values of the other clauses.
p

_{a}evaluating to False indicates that**it is not possible for clause a to determine p**.
For the next five questions, consider a simple predicate p¨=a˙∧b, with two clauses a˙ and b. Answer the following questions with reference to the logic coverage criteria for the predicate p. The truth table for p¨ is the table for the ∧(AND) connective and is not given here.

Please write the truth table and compute the true or false values for p¨,p¨a and p¨b, for true/false combinations for the clauses a˙ and b. →

What is p

A. p

B. p

C. p

D. p

_{a}, the conditions under which clause a determines p?A. p

_{a}= a.B. p

_{a}= b.C. p

_{a}= True.D. p

_{a}= False.
p

_{a}, the conditions under which clause a determines p, is**b**.
What is p

A. p

B. p

C. p

D. p

_{b}, the conditions under which clause b determines p?A. p

_{b}= a.B. p

_{b}= b.C. p

_{b}= True.D. p

_{b}= False.
p

_{b}, the conditions under which clause b determines p, is**a**.
State yes or no: CACC pairs for the clauses a and b are the same as GACC pairs.

A. Yes

B. No

A. Yes

B. No

The CACC pairs for the clauses a and b are the same as GACC pairs, so the answer is

**Yes**.
State yes or no: RACC pairs for the clauses a and b are the same as CACC pairs.

A. Yes

B. No

A. Yes

B. No

The RACC pairs for the clauses a and b are the same as CACC pairs, so the answer is

**Yes**.
State yes or no: RICC tuples for the clauses a and b are not the same as CACC tuples.

A. Yes

B. No

A. Yes

B. No

The RICC tuples for the clauses a and b are the same as CACC tuples, so the answer is

**No**.
If a particular method A in a class sends a message using an exclusive buffer to a method B in another class, which type of interface does this constitute?

A. Class interface.

B. Buffer interface.

C. Message passing interface.

D. Shared interface.

A. Class interface.

B. Buffer interface.

C. Message passing interface.

D. Shared interface.

If a method A in a class sends a message using an exclusive buffer to a method B in another class, this constitutes a

**Message passing interface**.
In a call graph that represents all the function or method calls, what does edge coverage achieve?

A. Edge coverage tests for executing every call at least once.

B. Edge coverage tests for executing all the paths that contain calls at least once.

A. Edge coverage tests for executing every call at least once.

B. Edge coverage tests for executing all the paths that contain calls at least once.

Edge coverage in a call graph achieves

**executing every call at least once**.
Which of the following best defines a coupling du-path?

A. A coupling du-path is from a coupled definition of a variable to the corresponding use.

B. A coupling du-path is from the last definition of a variable to the first use of the same variable.

A. A coupling du-path is from a coupled definition of a variable to the corresponding use.

B. A coupling du-path is from the last definition of a variable to the first use of the same variable.

A coupling du-path is defined as

**from the last definition of a variable to the first use of the same variable**.
State true or false: While testing for data flow in call interfaces, we need not consider only the last definition and the first use of a particular variable.

A. True.

B. False.

A. True.

B. False.

It is

**false**that while testing for data flow in call interfaces, we need not consider only the last definition and the first use of a particular variable.
While testing for sequencing constraints on specifications using graphs, what kind of test paths are typically used?

A. Test paths are defined to satisfy the sequencing constraints.

B. Test paths are defined to violate the sequencing constraints.

A. Test paths are defined to satisfy the sequencing constraints.

B. Test paths are defined to violate the sequencing constraints.

In testing for sequencing constraints,

**test paths are defined to violate the sequencing constraints**.
State true or false: The control flow graph fragments for loops like while, for etc., can vary slightly and this is acceptable as long as the control flow is captured correctly.

A. True.

B. False.

A. True.

B. False.

**True**—The control flow graph fragments for loops can vary slightly as long as the control flow is captured correctly.

A node or a set of nodes that in a particular control flow graph that cannot be reached through DFS or BFS represents which kind of statements in the corresponding program source code?

A. These node(s) represent statements that are incorrect.

B. These node(s) represent statements that are not reachable by any input.

A. These node(s) represent statements that are incorrect.

B. These node(s) represent statements that are not reachable by any input.

**These node(s) represent statements that are not reachable by any input.**

Which of the following represents a correct order of subsumption exclusively amongst data flow coverage criteria? In the options below, read → as ‘subsumes’.

A. All-du-paths coverage → All-defs coverage → All-uses-coverage.

B. All-du-paths coverage → All-uses coverage → All-defs-coverage.

A. All-du-paths coverage → All-defs coverage → All-uses-coverage.

B. All-du-paths coverage → All-uses coverage → All-defs-coverage.

**All-du-paths coverage → All-uses coverage → All-defs-coverage.**

Which of the statements below are correct regarding the definitions and uses of the variables x and y?

A. The nodes that define the variables x and y are the same.

B. The nodes that define and use the variables x and y are the same.

C. The nodes and edges that define the variables x and y are the same.

A. The nodes that define the variables x and y are the same.

B. The nodes that define and use the variables x and y are the same.

C. The nodes and edges that define the variables x and y are the same.

**The nodes that define the variables x and y are the same.**

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